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Essay 3 HIS 1995: Nature and Societal Transitions Due through Canvas by 11:59 P.M. on Wednesday, April 17 Please write a three-page paper on the following topic: Describe the range of political responses to the industrial revolution, including a) defenses of the new social system (e.g. Harriet Martineau and other utilitarian political economists), b) calls for reform of the system (e.g. Dickens in his roles as author and editor), and c) calls for the revolutionary overthrow of the system (e.g. Marx and Engels). Can you explain why each side adopted the view that it did? The paper is due Wednesday, April 17 through Canvas. Please do not email papers or turn them in late. Your paper must be written in the following format: 1) The paper must be typed, double-spaced, with 12 font type and standard margins. It must not exceed the length requirement by more than a page. If the paper is less than two pages or more than four pages (not counting the bibliography or cover sheet), your grade will be lowered one grade level (e.g. from B to B-). 2) You will need to underline your thesis sentence and restatement in the introduction and conclusion, as well as the key sentence of the remaining paragraphs. Failure to do so will result in your grade being lowered one grade level. 3) You will need to provide a cover sheet including your name, a title for the paper, your thesis statement, and the key sentences you have underlined in the body of the paper. Failure to do so will result in your grade being lowered one grade level. 4) Please include footnotes and bibliography in the humanities style of the Chicago reference style. Inconsistent use of the Chicago style will result in a one grade penalty (e.g. from A to A-). For significant errors in using this style, a two grade penalty will apply (e.g. from A to B+). Paragraphs lacking either footnotes or bibliography will be penalized three grades (e.g. from A to B). Your paper will be evaluated based upon consideration of the strength of the following: thesis, organization, evidence, and response to critics. You will be assigned a preliminary grade of A, B, C, D, or F based upon a reading of your cover page. Your entire paper will be read to confirm or change this preliminary grade. Your grade will also take into account any grade penalties for incorrect format given above. The following ten steps are designed to help you construct a well-written paper that meets the accepted conventions of academic writing. 1) Write an argumentative essay. Academic essays make an argument designed to convince a specific audience. Your goal is to develop your own analysis of this question, though it will build upon the theoretical and historiographical perspectives found in the readings and the historical data found there. You will also want to defend your interpretation. A scholarly argument is an exercise in persuasion: you don’t just want to state an opinion, but convince your (hypothetical) reader that your interpretation is correct. While I will read the papers in order to grade them, you don’t want to address the paper just to me, but to a broader educated audience. Don’t assume that your reader is familiar with the facts discussed in the class (so your hypothetical audience would include your friends and students outside the course). At the same time, imagine that some within your audience are familiar with course materials (other students in this class) and may hold different interpretations. Consequently, your essay should be informative and persuasive. 2) Write an effective introduction. You should give an introduction to the paper in the first paragraph. Give some general information about your topic to provide some context for what you are talking about, what problem you are trying to solve, and why it is important. The paragraph should lead naturally to your thesis statement at the end of the paragraph. 3) Write a strong thesis statement. A thesis states succinctly your position on the topic and the reasons for it. You can think of this as having two parts, a viewpoint and an argument, connected by the word “because” or the equivalent. A thesis should encapsulate your argument in a succinct, memorable way. The thesis should set up expectations in your readers about what you will demonstrate in the remainder of the paper. 4) Organize around key sentences. Your paper should be organized to support your thesis. When you are gathering ideas and evidence to support your thesis, group similar ideas and evidence together. Throw out weak or irrelevant evidence and focus your writing to support the overall argument. Make sure that each paragraph has a succinct key sentence that states the topic of the paragraph. Well-written essays are organized around paragraphs with key sentences that make one point. Key sentences come early in the paragraph—either the first sentence or a sentence following transitional discussion linking the paragraph to the previous paragraph. Key sentences orient you to what is coming and should allow you to anticipate what the rest of the paragraph will cover. They announce the topic of the paragraph without trying to prove anything. If the rest of the paragraph does not match the topic stated in the key sentence, there is a problem. Likewise, if the key sentence refers to issues going beyond what is covered in the rest of the paragraph, then it is too broad. Well-written paragraphs subordinate the discussion to the topic in the key sentence. They arrange the evidence in a way suitable for the writer’s purpose, not according to the layout of the source readings. This means that you should not just cover the same information in the same way and in the same order as the sources you draw upon. Each sentence should make a logically distinct point about your topic and together those sentences should contribute to a succinct, but comprehensive understanding of the topic. This means that you will be providing a logical organization of this information and the footnotes you give for individual sentences may draw upon a number of different passages in the reading. 5) Use your thesis and key sentences as an outline. By taking your thesis statement and the key sentences for all the paragraphs in your paper out and placing them in a cover sheet, you will be constructing an outline that reveals the organization of your paper. Please use this outline to consider whether your paper is well organized or not and if it omits anything crucial to your argument. Please also check that every key sentence is relevant to establishing your thesis. If it is not, remove the corresponding paragraph from your paper and rewrite. It is virtually impossible to write a strong essay without significantly revising your paper. Examining your outline after you write a draft can reveal problems with the organization of your paper. In most cases, I can tell whether a paper is likely to be an A, B, or C based on the quality of the outline. 6) Provide the most accurate and persuasive evidence for your position. You will need to provide evidence for your position throughout the paper by supporting your ideas with concrete examples from the reading or other class sources. Please do not use outside sources; this is not a research paper. Moreover, I’m concerned with your use of the evidence available to you in the course that is relevant to our paper topic. You are not being judged by outside knowledge you may have and inclusion of such knowledge invariably leads students away from the main task. Do not just summarize the course reading, however. Instead, gather and organize the evidence given in the reading and videos in a way that supports your argument. You may also cite information in my lectures if that information was not in the reading or videos already (otherwise cite that source directly). Keep in mind that your use of evidence will be judged by its accuracy and its use to support your case. Therefore, not just any piece of evidence will be persuasive in all essays. If you leave out facts that would support your case better than those you included, this weakens your essay. 7) Write in your own language and document your sources using the correct format. You should cite the reading directly, including page numbers, for information that you draw upon. The paper should include footnotes (not endnotes) and bibliography in the humanities style of the Chicago-style format (see http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html). In order to write a college paper, you need to be aware of the rules for proper attribution of ideas and language derived from another source. Any plagiarism, whether intentional or stemming from ignorance or carelessness, will result in an F for this course. Please see “Acknowledging the Work of Others,” available at http://www.cs.cornell.edu/courses/cs674/2007fa/ack-others.pdf for more information. This means that you cannot use sentences that are the same as (or very similar to) sentences in the reading or from another source or paper. Footnotes are used by writers to document the sources from which they draw information. ANY ideas, language or information not your own must have the source cited in a footnote. A reader can then see where you took your information from. Any ideas, language, or information not properly cited are considered plagiarized. After a source has been cited in full in your paper, you can use a shortened version consisting of the author’s last name and a short book title along with the page number. The Latin abbreviation “Ibid.” should be used if the next citation uses the same source as the previous one. Lastly, footnotes do not substitute for a bibliography. One needs a bibliography at the end of a paper in addition to the footnotes. All sources that you used in your paper and that appear in your footnotes must be included in your bibliography. Do not include sources in your bibliography that you did not use in your paper. Please note that the sources are formatted differently in the bibliography than in the footnotes. 8) Respond to criticisms of your thesis respectfully. You should anticipate objections to your thesis and use of evidence that a knowledgeable person may have and include responses to them. Since arguments are directed to an audience to persuade them of a particular position, you can expect that alternative arguments are possible and plausible. After all, there would be no point making an argument if it was obvious or accepted by all. Since those who agree with your position already don’t need to be persuaded, arguments are directed at convincing those who disagree. Ignoring counterarguments is a sure way to alienate your audience. Consequently, you should discuss criticisms fairly and respond to them. Considering and disposing of potential counterevidence throughout the essay is a good way to demonstrate that you have considered all sides and are presenting a balanced, defensible argument. 9) Write with appropriate tone. The tone of your writing refers to the writer’s attitude towards his subject and reader. Using a tone that conveys rudeness or hostility is a sure way to alienate your reader. Your tone should not be negative. Avoid personal attacks or declarations that the opposing view is stupid or wrong. In addition, you want to avoid a tone that suggests a lack of seriousness or a casual attitude inappropriate to academic writing. Try to present your discussion in a concise, clear, and straightforward way, taking disagreements with your position in stride, subjecting them to courteous consideration and argument. Above all, remember that academic discourse is not the same as political polemics or internet chatting. 10) Write an effective conclusion. The conclusion should revisit your thesis, perhaps stating the main point in another way that is made possible by what the body of your paper has accomplished. You should revisit what problem you were looking to solve, why it is important, what your view is, and what the argument is that you have defended in the paper. Ideally, you should leave your reader with a memorable restatement of your thesis that makes clear the broader significance it has for future work in the field. Please underline the restatement of your thesis and include it on your cover sheet. Grading Rubric for Papers Instructions to Grader: Next to each bolded criteria, place “+”, “√” or “-”, depending on whether the paper fulfilled the stated criteria below it well (“+”), adequately (“√”), or poorly (“–”). Next, mark at least one of the criteria below it to show why that mark was earned. Grades will be assigned based upon a holistic assessment using the following key as a guide. A base grade of A, B, or C will be assigned for strong, adequate, and weak papers respectively. A grade of D will be assigned for papers that make little connection with course content and an F will be assigned for papers with no significant connection to course content. Base grades will be lowered based on missing elements listed below. Thesis Thesis shows the author’s position. Thesis shows the arguments around which the paper will be organized. The arguments in the thesis present the most persuasive arguments. Thesis is stated in one short, memorable sentence. Organization When the list of key sentences is read, in order, alone, they show a logical progression of ideas. Each paragraph is organized around one and only one idea. Each paragraph has a key sentence that summarizes the idea in one short, memorable sentence. Evidence The most valid, persuasive evidence is given for each argument. The writer has provided concrete examples that support the argument. The writer has searched effectively for evidence, putting together evidence from different parts of the reading and course material. Critics The main arguments of the critics are presented. The main arguments of the critics are addressed. When the arguments of the critics are addressed, a respectful tone is used. Base Grade (A, B, C, D, F): Deduct One Grade Level for the Following (Check if Missing): The paper is less than two pages or more than four pages long. The key sentence is not underlined in every paragraph of the body, with thesis statement/restatement underlined in the introduction and conclusion. Cover sheet does not show the thesis and a list of key sentences. Inconsistent use of the Humanities version of the Chicago-style footnotes or bibliography. Deduct two grade levels: Significant errors in the footnote or bibliography format. Deduct three grade levels: Lacking footnotes or bibliography. Paper Grade:
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