Reply 1 and 2 for 11/27/2021 at 8:00 am

Reply 1 

Bronchiolitis- “Bronchiolitis is diffuse inflammation of the small airways or bronchioles. Bronchiolitis is usually diffuse. The resulting decrease in the ventilation-perfusion ratio results in hypoxemia. A decrease in minute ventilation with resulting carbon dioxide retention also may occur as lung restriction worsens” (McCance & Huether, 2018, p. 1172). “Bronchiolitis occurs as a result of the inflammation of the lining of the epithelial cells of the small airways in the lungs causing mucus production, inflammation and cellular necrosis of those cells. It is the inflammation of these cells that can obstruct the airway and ultimately result in wheezing” (Erickson, E., 2021).  

Bronchiectasis- “is persistent abnormal dilation of the bronchi. This disorder may result from a genetic predisposition or be caused by a defect in host defense (McCance & Huether, 2018, p. 1172). “The first stage in the development of bronchiectasis is an initial infective insult to the airways, which triggers a mucociliary response. Micro-organisms trigger the release of toxins and an inflammatory response within the airways. This inflammatory response includes the release of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages within the bronchial lumen. Neutrophils also alter the function of the cilial epithelium, leading to changes in cilial beat frequency and mucous gland hyper secretion. Both processes compromise mucociliary clearance” (Bronchiectasis, 2021).  

The major difference between bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis is that bronchiectasis “causes damage to the airways causes them to widen and become flabby and scarred” (Bronchial Disorders, 2020). While on the other hand, bronchiolitis  causes airways to constrict, “there is airway edema and obstruction to airflow” (Petrillo-Albarano, 2019).    

References

Bronchial Disorders. (2020). Bronchiectasis | Bronchiolitis | MedlinePlus. https://medlineplus.gov/bronchialdisorders.html 

Bronchiectasis. (2021, March 8). Bronchiectasis ToolBox. https://bronchiectasis.com.au/bronchiectasis/bronchiectasis/pathophysiology 

Erickson, E. (2021, October 11). Pediatric Bronchiolitis. NCBI. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519506/ 

McCance K., L., & Huether, S., E. (2018). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.) St Louis, MO: Mosby Inc; ISBN-13: 978-0323583473

Petrillo-Albarano, T. (2019, January 17). Respiratory Failure – lower airway obstruction: bronchiolitis/asthma. Cancer Therapy Advisor. https://www.cancertherapyadvisor.com/home/decision-support-in-medicine/critical-care-medicine/respiratory-failure-lower-airway-obstruction-bronchiolitis-asthma/ 

Reply 2

Respiratory illnesses and attract diverse side effects may hamper the possibility of realizing the desired and improved health outcomes on the patients. For example, bronchiolitis is 1 of the respiratory health issues arising from the information of the epithelial cells in the lungs. The primary symptoms associated with bronchiolitis include increased mucus production, inflammation of the cells within the airway, and cellular necrosis. When individuals are diagnosed with bronchiolitis, they will also experience obstructions early because of the inflammations. This can be considered as part of the reason why the individuals will have a shortage of breath and wheezing. Bronchiolitis is often common among children below two years, and it can worsen when exposed to the respiratory syntactical virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis is also, depending on the prevailing weather conditions. This explains why there is an increased risk of the disease in autumn and winter. Bronchiolitis does not attract any long-term problems, but it can damage airway cells in children. This explains why healthcare personnel must find ways of incorporating evidence-based intervention measures to help with managing symptoms such as persistent coughs and wheezing (Valencia-Ramos et al., 2018).

Bronchiectasis is also categorized as a respiratory illness characterized by chronic inflammation and infections that often occur at different stages. The stages form a vicious cycle that can be destructive to the bronchi and other related organs within the respiratory system. When an individual is diagnosed with bronchiectasis, they have and infections within their airway that trigger a mucociliary response. This is because toxins release as an inflammatory response triggers the release of neutrophils that alter the cilia epithelium’s functioning. In such cases, an individual’s mucociliary clearance will be compromised. There is an increased vulnerability to microbiota colonization associated with triggering an intense chronic inflammation and response responsible for releasing inflammatory mediators. The result is a thickened airway that reduces structural cartilage and supportive structure, and mucus pool. Bronchiectasis is progressive in the way it damages the airway. It can have long-term effects if adequate and relevant intervention measures are not incorporated as part of the health management techniques (Chalmers & Chotrimal, 2018).

References

Chalmers, J. D., & Chotirmall, S. H. (2018). Bronchiectasis: new therapies and new perspectives. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine6(9), 715-726.

Valencia-Ramos, J., Mirás, A., Cilla, A., Ochoa, C., & Arnaez, J. (2018). Incorporating a nebulizer system into high-flow nasal cannula improves comfort in infants with bronchiolitis. Respiratory care63(7), 886-893.







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